This will require 2 queries -

1. Create a new Client query in Accounts Receivable 
2. On the Criteria tab:
Select Payment Date > Not between > [Date range where they would not have made a payment]
3. On the Output tab:
Add any desired Output, such as Client > Client name
4. On the Sort tab: 
Select Payment > Payment Date > (Descending Order)
5. Save as Query 1
6. Create a new Client query
7. On the Criteria tab:
Select Payment Date > Between > [Same date range as above]
8. On the Output tab:
Add any desired Output, such as Client > Client name
9. On the Sort tab: 
Select Payment > Payment Date > (Descending Order)
10. Save as Query 2
11. Select File > Merge
12. Map Query 1 and Query 2 respectively, and choose the option  Select records included in Query 1 but exclude records included in both queries
13. Save the query

The results of the merged query would include any clients that had a payment prior to the "late" range, but none that had a payment come in during the "late" range.

This query can also be used with the Aged Accounts Receivable report to see the client's current balance.