In general, yes, you can upload the corrected file without causing a problem.

The following Source fields are what get updated by gifts being posted to those Sources. If you are not uploading any of these in the file, then there should not be an issue.
 
actual_payment_amount
actual_payment_number
actual_pledge_amount
actual_pledge_number
response_start_date
response_end_date

If the Mail_Date on the Source record in TA is null, then you can update any field on the Source record with uploaded data (though you do not want to upload information in the above fields if gifts have already been posted to the sources). However, if there is a Mail_Date on the Source record in TA, then when you do a source upload these are the ONLY fields that it will update.
 
description
total_cost
cost_per_solicitation
number_contacts
cost_per_contact
target_payment_amount
target_payment_number
target_pledge_amount
target_pledge_number
estimated_pledge_amount
estimated_pledge_number
offer_amount
package_cost
postage_cost_per_piece
data_processing_cost
rollout_cost
retest_cost
list_cost
rollout_product_cost_per_piece
rollout_postage_cost_per_piece