In the address processing section, the country will only be populated if the country field has been selected in the address block fields on the International record in Configuration for that country. Either the long or the short description should be used based on what has been selected for the address block.

The country is only affected by the International record settings when it is selected under address processing. When it is selected under the other address nodes, it will populate when present on the address. This is because from other areas, like Preferred Address, it only pulls the data from the field.  It is not using any form of processing.  When using Address Processing, it pulls from the Address Block setup for that country in Config>International.