By default, most donation forms use the billing address data elements. There are site settings that when enabled, allow the billing address data elements update the constituent record.  To enable these data elements, please contact Support

When these settings are enabled then the values entered into the donor address field will update the constituent record if the constituent is logged in when submitting the donation.  If the constituent is not logged in, then the system will look for a record that matches the email address provided.  If a match is found, the matching constituent record will be updated using the donor address fields.